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August See also: Liquefied natural gas and Nord Stream 2.

US Congress would undermine transatlantic alliance with Nord Stream 2 sanctions

Russia portal Energy portal. Retrieved 11 August Russian Analytical Digest. Archived from the original PDF on 6 July Retrieved 23 February Washington, D. European Commission. Retrieved 30 January Associated Press. Retrieved 15 November Energy Information Administration. May Archived from the original PDF on 7 June Deutsche Welle. Luft, Gal.

Hydrocarbons falling prices: A danger for European energy security?

Santa Barbara, Calif. NG Oxford Institute for Energy Studies. Archived from the original PDF on 16 November Retrieved 13 October The New York Times. International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 17 March European Council of Foreign Relations.

American LNG fuels European energy security - Steffen Henne and Alex Epstein

Retrieved 16 April The Guardian. Russia has long been the dominant source and supplier of natural gas to Europe's mass market but the U. Europe certainly appears keen to wean itself off Russian gas, and all the geopolitical implications that reliance entails, while making overtures to the U. Twenty-four percent of U.

In the whole of , only 10 percent of U. LNG exports went to the EU.

Hydrocarbons falling prices: A danger for European energy security? | IRIS

The Commission, the EU's executive arm, expects U. LNG trade in late November.


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The U. It saw exports of its LNG rise 58 percent through the first half of , compared with the same period in In fact, while U. LNG exports have continued to grow in , U. Russia remains the largest supplier of natural gas to the EU in , according to the Commission's latest data on EU imports of energy products in October.

The other main suppliers are Norway and, at a lower level, Algeria and Qatar.

‘Regions and Empires’

Showing the extent of much of the EU's reliance on Russian gas, the Commission noted that 11 member states Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Hungary, Austria, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia and Finland imported more than 75 percent of total national imports of natural gas from Russia in , largely due to their proximity to the country. Gas from Russia is supplied to the continent by state-owned gas company Gazprom via pipelines, giving it an advantage in terms of cheaper transportation costs and established infrastructure and supply.


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It has a number of major pipelines in operation, or under construction, with European energy and infrastructure companies. As well as the Nord Stream pipeline and its expanded version, Nord Stream 2, linking Russia to Europe via the Baltic Sea the expanded pipeline is seen as a way to bypass transit countries like Ukraine , Gazprom and partner companies in Poland, Belarus and Germany oversee the 2, kilometer Yamal-Europe pipeline that sends gas from one of its production centers in Torzhok via Belarus and Poland to Germany.

The company is also constructing the TurkStream pipeline for gas exports from Russia across the Black Sea to Turkey and south eastern Europe.

European Energy Security Governance: Key-Challenges in EU-Russia Energy Relations

Pipeline projects have prompted criticism in Europe and in the U. Despite its reliance on Russia for gas, the EU's relationship with the country is a rocky one. Relations deteriorated when Russia annexed Crimea from Ukraine in early and supported a pro-Russian uprising in east Ukraine, after which the U. Penalties were placed on Russian oil companies including Gazprom and its oil arm Neft in that sought to hinder these companies exploration and production of energy.

Five EU companies are involved in the construction of Nord Stream 2 and the EU has expressed concern over such sanctions. While there are other reasons to increase imports from the U.