Mind maps enable us to brainstorm and record our ideas in a visual way. Mind maps begin with a circle that includes the main idea and then the writer adds branches or bubbles of words, ideas or illustrations which expand upon the topic. I began using mind maps when I was teaching vocabulary in English as a Second Language classes. I use mind maps in several different ways to; 1 brainstorm, 2 create a cluster of related words or 3 create a list of themes and ideas that I want to include in a poem. Click to see full diagram. Backed by neuroscience, this book presents a compelling concept: anyone can train their brain to become better at writing.
Get a copy here. Hence, poetry reception may result in diverse idea generation. Flexibility is the ability to use various categories beyond the boundaries of their literal meaning. Many researchers agree that reception of poetry inhibits automatic associations, thereby producing ideas without value Kirsch and Guthrie, ; Halonen, Creative thinking is often connected with breaking typical patterns of thinking and seeing the world in another way Amabile, , which relates to intellectual risk-taking Nickerson, The lack of change in originality scores may be related to the character of the poem.
Utopia is rather calm, balanced, and narrative. As such, it may be able to weaken resistance to seeing things from another point of view flexibility. In contrast, reception of such a poem may inhibit original idea production until the whole of the poem is understood. Therefore, the reception of this type of poetry may have a buffering effect on intrinsically motivated original ideas. Thus, increased originality may be more visible after reception of cathartic metaphoric poems, which presents the extraordinary experience of a poet.
Finally, showing that the level of poetic interest predicts flexibility measured prior to manipulation is in line with previous research; specifically, that long-term contact with poetry is associated with creative problem solving McGovern and Hogshead, Study 1 showed the positive impact of narrative poetry on DT. Subsequently, Study 2 utilized conventional poetry, with the hypothesis that reception of this type of poetry would not enhance creativity.
We wanted also reveal why individuals demonstrate spontaneous contact with poetry, which may be essential for receiving this kind of art, and thus increased performance on tasks requiring DT ability. These elements were empathy i. Poems can be challenging cognitive tasks. As such, understanding a poem requires the creation of complex meaning from specific words and exploration of multifaceted ideas Csikszentmihalyi, We predicted that the variables listed above would be crucial for initial DT levels i.
We also predicted that reception of conventional poetry and the control text would lead to a poorer performance on the DT task after its reception. Students from this pool were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Participants provided written, informed consent, and were free to withdraw from the research at any time without giving reason or justification for withdrawing and received course credit as compensation.
Participants received course credit for participation, and their participation was anonymous. It uses commonplace metaphors, which describe the world in well-known ways e. The chosen poem does not rhyme and is emotionally stable, which was confirmed by three judges, in a manner similar to Study 1. It approximated the word count of the poem and did not contain any metaphors. This scale was an extended version of the task created for Study 1, which measures passion for poetry, as well as frequency of poetry reading and taking part in poetic meetings e.
This tool consists of two dimensions: an analytical-rational style of thinking and an intuitive-experimental style of thinking. The most important element of this measure for the current study was the NFC scale. The IRI is a questionnaire addressing empathy.
In the current study, the Fantasy scale was used. This scale measures the tendency to imaginatively transpose oneself into fictional situations, as well as into the feelings and actions of fictitious characters in books, movies, and plays. This scale consists of 7 items e.
The Academy of American Poets “Poetry & the Creative Mind” | Lynn McCary Events
The IRI involves a 5-point response option scale ranging from 1 strongly disagree to 5 strongly agree. Participants first completed the baseline creativity test. Then, participants were randomized into one of two groups; a the experimental group that read the poem, and b the control group that read the description of its content. After the second reading, participants completed the second creativity test and completed the questionnaires listed above, using pen-and-paper procedures.
The order of the creativity tests was counterbalanced across participants. We also collected postal addresses from participants interested in the results.
The Creative Mind in Coleridge’s Poetry
Two participants were excluded from analyses due to lack some data. All three DT indicators were scored by five independent raters. All indicators were analyzed separately by means of three repeated-measures ANOVAs with effect of measurement first vs. Extended data are shown in Figure 4. Mean fluency scores in the poetry-reading group and description-reading group in the first and second measurement in Study 2.
Two-tailed paired t -tests showed that flexibility of both groups dropped in the second measurement when we compared its level with the first measurement.
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Two t -tests showed that poetry reception resulted in lower flexibility scores than description reception in the second measurement. Extended data are presented in Figure 5. Mean flexibility scores in the poetry-reading group and description-reading group in the first and second measurement in Study 2. We tried to explain the observed behavior—contact with poetry—in psychological terms. To elucidate the impacts of personality predictors on contact with poetry, we performed a single multiple regression analysis.
The dependent variable was frequency of contact with poetry and the independent variables were fantasy and NFC.
As predicted, we found no significant effects regarding these variables in the second measurement. We found that contact with conventional, biographical poetry led to decreased indicators of DT. We also observed that people who received this type of poetry demonstrated less fluent and flexible thinking compared with those that read a description of the same information.
These results provide support for our hypothesis that idea generation is less likely after reception of narrative-conventional poetry, and that people are less creative after reading this kind of text, when compared to reading a neutral text. Kovecses stated that a large body of poetry is constructed in a very conventional way i. Such conventional metaphors e. Poets create novel, non-conventional poems through cognitive transformations: elaboration, extension, questioning, and combining Lakoff and Turner, Therefore, it seems that the biographical, closed, and conventional poetry is also insufficient to stimulate creativity.
Accordingly, the results showed that frequent contact with poetry could be explained by individual differences, specifically increased ability to become absorbed in the feelings of characters in a novel, as well as a stronger NFC. We can conclude that the features of the text, as well as the ability to actively perceive the poem, are key factors for appropriate poem reception.
Noy and Noy-Sharav argue that the emotional message of art is always individually perceived.
Poetry & the Creative Mind celebrating National Poetry Month
Silvia , who refers to the appraisal theory of aesthetic emotions, claims that the evaluation of art, and not art itself, arouses emotions. Understanding of a poem requires the ability to actively follow and immerse oneself in the poetry content, which is an essential dimension of empathy Davis, Experience suggests that absorption and poetry-elicited empathy should impact positively on the aesthetic evaluation of a poem Garrido and Schubert, ; Taruffi and Koelsch, Furthermore, curiosity is a key component of emotional motivation Hoffman, ; Silvia, The recipient should be motivated to comprehend the cognitively demanding content of the poem, which is a determinant of NFC i.
In general, we conclude that poetry reception favors pro-creativity states only under certain conditions, and that these conditions should be investigated in future studies. Poets describe their emotions and observations, in the form of metaphorical statements, in an effort to better convey their vision of the world to the reader.
The first poet uses open metaphors, while the second conventional ones. We expected, and confirmed to a large extent, that perceiving novel metaphors, based on remote associations i. Even one-time contact with narrative, open poetry improved some aspects of DT.
However, we did not observe changes in originality, which is the key indicator of DT efficiency. Despite limitations in the selection of material, we conclude that poetry could be a useful tool for manipulating DT. Specifically, the results of the current studies suggest that poetry improves creativity if it contains open metaphors.
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